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Übersetzung für 'football' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. pelitabandungraya.co | Übersetzungen für 'football' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'football' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für football im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. American Football (englisch für „Amerikanischer Fußball“), oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus Die höchste reguläre Liga in Deutschland ist die German Football League (GFL), die in eine Nord- und eine Südgruppe mit je 8 Teams.

Football Deutsch

Das NFL-Lexikon auf pelitabandungraya.co Die wichtigsten Begriffe des American Football, damit Ihr die National Football League ohne Probleme verfolgen könnt. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für football im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. American Football (englisch für „Amerikanischer Fußball“), oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus Die höchste reguläre Liga in Deutschland ist die German Football League (GFL), die in eine Nord- und eine Südgruppe mit je 8 Teams.

Football Deutsch Video

Football Deutsch Wird Football Deutsch zu Boden gebracht oder verlässt er das Spielfeld, ist der Spielzug beendet. Der Kickoff nach einem Punktgewinn erfolgt immer durch die zuvor erfolgreiche Mannschaft. Ein angefangener Spielzug wird visit web page fertig gespielt, auch wenn die Spielzeit im jeweiligen Quarter ausgelaufen ist. Link nach Ende der 10 Click to see more keine Punkte erzielt worden sein oder immer noch Gleichstand bestehen, weil beispielsweise beide Mannschaften in ihrem jeweils ersten Ballbesitz ein Field Goal click at this page habenso endet das Football Deutsch unentschieden. Aufgabe des Wide Receivers ist es, weite Pässe des Quarterbacks zu fangen, um im Anschluss daran möglichst weit in Richtung Endzone zu sprinten. Ab der dritten Overtime ist ein PAT nicht mehr zulässig. Ballträger sind gewöhnlich Runningbacks, also Halfback und Fullback. Ein ähnliches Ziel verfolgen die D-Line Shifts. Auf die PUP-Liste werden Spieler gesetzt, die sich vor Beginn der Regular Season eine Verletzung beim Source zuziehen, bei denen aber davon ausgegangen wird, dass sie zur oder während der Regular Season wieder einsatzfähig werden. Der Spielzug endet mit einem Tackle, dem Verlassen des Spielfeldes oder, falls es der Ballträger bis in die gegnerische Endzone schafft, mit einem Touchdown. Sprich, eine click Angriffsserie bis der Gegner wieder im Ballbesitz ist. Fakes machen einen nicht unbedeutenden Teil der Taktiklastigkeit des Spieles aus. Manche lieben sie, manche hassen sie.

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Headquartered in Zürich , its membership now comprises national associations. Today, FIFA outlines a number of objectives in the organizational Statues, including growing football internationally, providing efforts to ensure football is accessible to everyone, and advocating for integrity and fair play.

Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption, bribery, and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the and World Cups to Russia and Qatar , respectively.

These allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering , wire fraud , and money laundering.

On 27 May , several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the and World Cups.

Those among these officials who were also indicted in the U. The need for a single body to oversee association football became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The first tournament FIFA staged, the association football competition for the Olympics in London was more successful than its Olympic predecessors, despite the presence of professional footballers, contrary to the founding principles of FIFA.

During World War I , with many players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures severely limited, the organization's survival was in doubt.

Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organization was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann. It was saved from extinction but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations of the United Kingdom , who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies.

The Home Nations later resumed their membership. It has been re-arranged and produced by Rob May and Simon Hill. Since , FIFA has also required most of its broadcast partners to use short sequences including the anthem at the beginning and end of FIFA event coverage, as well as for break bumpers , to help promote FIFA's sponsors.

Exceptions may be made for specific events; for example, an original piece of African music was used for bumpers during the FIFA World Cup.

Besides its worldwide institutions, there are six confederations recognized by FIFA which oversee the game in the different continents and regions of the world.

National associations, and not the continental confederations, are members of FIFA. In total, FIFA recognizes national associations and their associated men's national teams as well as women's national teams; see the list of national football teams and their respective country codes.

The number of FIFA member associations is higher than the number of UN member states as FIFA has admitted associations from 23 non-sovereign entities as members in their own right, such as the four Home Nations within the United Kingdom and politically disputed territories such as Palestine.

The FIFA World Rankings are updated monthly and rank each team based on their performance in international competitions, qualifiers, and friendly matches.

There is also a world ranking for women's football , updated four times a year. Each national football association has one vote, regardless of its size or footballing strength.

The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year, and extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since Congress makes decisions relating to FIFA's governing statutes and their method of implementation and application.

The congress approves the annual report, and decides on the acceptance of new national associations and holds elections.

The council is composed of 37 people: the president; 8 vice presidents; and 28 members from the confederations, with at least one of them being a woman.

The Executive Committee is the body that decides which country will host the World Cup. The president and the general secretary are the main office holders of FIFA, and are in charge of its daily administration, carried out by the general secretariat, with its staff of approximately members.

Gianni Infantino is the current president, elected on 26 February at an extraordinary FIFA Congress session after former president Sepp Blatter was suspended pending a corruption investigation.

Blatter, the only full-time person on the committee, earned approximately two million Swiss francs, 1.

FIFA has members on its board four representatives ; the other four are provided by the football associations of the United Kingdom: England , Scotland , Wales , and Northern Ireland , who jointly established IFAB in and are recognized for the creation and history of the game.

Changes to the Laws of the Game must be agreed by at least six of the eight delegates. The governing system is divided into separate bodies that have the appropriate powers to create a system of checks and balances.

It consists of four general bodies: the congress, the executive committee, the general secretariat, and standing and ad-hoc committees.

FIFA frequently takes active roles in the running of the sport and developing the game around the world.

One of its sanctions is to suspend teams and associated members from international competition when a government interferes in the running of FIFA's associate member organizations or if the associate is not functioning properly.

A FIFA ruling that a player can be registered with a maximum of three clubs, and appear in official matches for a maximum of two, in a year measured from 1 July to 30 June has led to controversy, especially in those countries whose seasons cross that date barrier, as in the case of two former Ireland internationals.

As a direct result of this controversy, FIFA modified this ruling the following year to accommodate transfers between leagues with out-of-phase seasons.

FIFA now permits the use video evidence during matches, as well as for subsequent sanctions. However, for most of FIFA's history it stood opposed to its use.

The television companies will have the right to say [the referee] was right or wrong, but still the referee makes the decision — a man, not a machine.

The book also alleged that vote-rigging had occurred in the fight for Sepp Blatter 's continued control of FIFA as the organization's president.

Shortly after the release of Foul! Lord Triesman , the former chairman of the English Football Association, described FIFA as an organization that "behaves like a mafia family", highlighting the organization's "decades-long traditions of bribes, bungs and corruption ".

Since then, and in the light of fresh allegations of corruption by FIFA in late , [53] both Jennings and Brennan remain highly critical of FIFA has Brennan called directly for an alternative to FIFA to be considered by the stakeholders of the sport throughout the world.

A former ISL executive said that there were suspicions within the company that they were only awarded the marketing contract for successive World Cups by paying bribes to FIFA officials.

The programme also alleged that another current official, Jack Warner , has been repeatedly involved in reselling World Cup tickets to touts; Blatter said that FIFA had not investigated the allegation because it had not been told about it via 'official channels.

Following Jennings' earlier investigations, he was banned from all FIFA press conferences, for reasons he claimed had not been made clear.

The accused officials failed to answer questions about his latest allegations, either verbally or by letter.

The IOC stated that it "takes all allegations of corruption very seriously and we would always ask for any evidence of wrongdoing involving any IOC members to be passed to our ethics commission".

In a interview, American sports writer Dave Zirin said that corruption is endemic to FIFA leadership, and that the organization should be abolished for the good of the game.

He said that currently, FIFA is in charge of both monitoring corruption in football matches, and marketing and selling the sport, but that two "separate" organizational bodies are needed: an organizational body that monitors corruption and match-fixing and the like, and an organization that's responsible for marketing and sponsorships and selling the sport.

Zirin said the idea of having a single organization that's responsible for both seems highly ineffective and detrimental to the sport.

In May , 14 people were arrested, including nine FIFA officials, after being accused of corruption. Between and four individuals, and two sports television rights corporations pleaded guilty to United States financial misconduct charges.

The officials were arrested in Switzerland and are in the process of extradition to the US. Specific charges brought under the RICO act include wire fraud , racketeering , and money laundering.

Two members of FIFA's executive committee were banned from all football-related activity in November for allegedly offering to sell their votes to undercover newspaper reporters.

In early May , a British parliamentary inquiry into why England failed to secure the finals was told by member of parliament, Damian Collins , that there was evidence from The Sunday Times newspaper that Issa Hayatou of Cameroon and Jacques Anouma of Ivory Coast were paid by Qatar.

Qatar has categorically denied the allegations, as have Hayatou and Anouma. Blatter did not rule out reopening the vote if corruption could be proved, but urged taking the matter "step by step".

The FIFA president said his organization is "anxiously awaiting" more evidence before asking its ethics committee to examine allegations made in Britain's Parliament in early May Anouma is president of Ivorian Football Federation.

The whistle-blower said Qatar agreed to pay a third African voter, Amos Adamu , for his support. The Nigerian was later suspended from voting after a FIFA ethics court ruled he solicited bribes from undercover Sunday Times reporters posing as lobbyists.

All six FIFA voters have denied wrongdoing. On 28 September , Sepp Blatter suggested that the World Cup being awarded to Russia was planned before the voting, and that the World Cup would have then been awarded to the United States.

However, this plan changed after the election ballot, and the World Cup was awarded to Qatar instead of the U. The documents are now part of the bribery inquiry by Swiss Police.

Furthermore, please note that Fifa lodged a criminal complaint with the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland, which is still pending.

Fifa is and will continue to cooperate with the authorities". As a result of the investigation both Bin Hammam and Warner were suspended.

He may have worked under Guardiola, Heynckes and Ancelotti and more at Bayern, but Flick has something David Alaba has never seen before.

Bayern have made a powerful statement by signing of Sane from Man City. But where will he line up for the champions?

From Lewy playing wide receiver to Boateng's quarter-back to Kramaric's no-look penalty, June was jam-packed with great goals!

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Harris Interactive. Archived from the original on 11 June The television companies will have the right to say [the referee] was right or wrong, but still the referee makes the decision — a man, not a machine. A game known as "football" was played in Scotland as early here the 15th century: it was prohibited by the Football Act and although the Casino Potsdam fell into disuse it Football Deutsch not repealed until Toggle menu Home. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own Beste Spielothek in Kirchstatten finden of what click here called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules. The officials were arrested in Switzerland and are in the process of extradition to the US.

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In , David Wedderburn , a teacher from Aberdeen , mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula.

Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".

There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players "drive that man back".

A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby 's Book of Games , written in about The gates are called Goals. He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness".

He is the first to describe a "law" of football: "they must not strike [an opponent's leg] higher than the ball".

English public schools were the first to codify football games. In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century.

Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation.

However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby , Harrow and Cheltenham , during between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.

They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force.

Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.

Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.

Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham , while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.

The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played.

For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters , making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.

William Webb Ellis , a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.

This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football , but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.

The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern association football, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory, [55] the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.

The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.

Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.

The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.

The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc.

The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.

Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below.

Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of , which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children.

Before , many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. These changes meant that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.

Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the midth century and ceased playing matches in The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh , Scotland, during the period — In , three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school.

These were the first set of written rules or code for any form of football. One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup , contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football , although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.

The South Australian Football Association 30 April is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition.

The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.

The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on 5 March at the Oval under the authority of the FA.

The first Rugby international took place in In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders , more specifically pig's bladders , which were inflated.

Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.

In , the U. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons see truncated icosahedron did not become popular until the s, and was first used in the World Cup in The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen , Scotland.

Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called".

During the nineteenth century, several codifications of the rules of football were made at the University of Cambridge , in order to enable students from different public schools to play each other.

The Cambridge Rules of influenced the decision of Football Association to ban Rugby-style carrying of the ball in its own first set of laws.

By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football.

Sheffield Football Club , founded in in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.

The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule. The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football.

These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar. At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century.

The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to in Melbourne , the capital city of Victoria.

Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules, [] the first of which was played on 31 July Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne rapidly increased in popularity.

Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club the oldest surviving Australian football club on 14 May Club members Wills, William Hammersley , J.

Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs.

The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling.

The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. Harrison , a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own".

The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs.

The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs. A significant redraft in by H.

Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club 's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes.

It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.

The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.

During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games.

In , J. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.

In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.

Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham.

In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

In Britain , by , there were 49 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 November , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.

Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On 6 November , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.

It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On 23 November , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby were replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on 9 October , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.

By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above.

The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.

There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport.

This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs : a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately.

The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.

In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

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