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Of particular interest are the , recoveryoperation workers who were employed in the km zone in , as it is in this period that the highest doses were received; information concerning these workers is provided in Table About half of these persons were civilian and half were military servicemen brought in for the special and shortterm work.

The workers were all adults, mostly males aged years. The construction workers were those participating in building the sarcophagus around the damaged reactor.

Other workers included those involved in transport and security, scientists and medical staff. The distributions of the external doses for the categories of workers listed in Table 16, as well as for the emergency workers and accident witnesses, are shown in Table The remainder of the recovery operation workers about , , who generally received lower doses, includes those who worked inside the km zone in a small number of workers are still involved , those who decontaminated areas outside the km zone, and other categories of people.

In a state registry of persons exposed to radiation was established at Obninsk. This included not only recovery operation workers but evacuees and residents of contaminated areas as well.

The registry existed until the end of Starting in , national registries of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine replaced the all-union registry.

The number of recovery operation workers in the national registries of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine is listed in Table Some , workers from these countries were involved in the years To this must be added the 17, recovery operation workers recorded in the registries of the Baltic countries, including 7, from Lithuania, 5, from Latvia and 4, from Estonia [K13].

More detailed information on the registries is provided in Chapter IV. This number is likely to increase in the future, as some organizations may not have provided all their information to the central registries; in addition, individuals may on their own initiative ask to be registered in order to benefit from certain privileges.

However, the number of recoveryoperation workers recorded in the national registries is well below the figure of about ,, which corresponds to the number of people who have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators.

The doses to the recovery operation workers who participated in mitigation activities within two months after the accident are not known with much certainty.

Attempts to establish a dosimetric service were inadequate until the middle of June. TLDs and condenser-type dosimeters that had been secured by 28 April were insufficient in number and, in the case of the latter type, largely nonfunctioning, and records were lost when the dosimetric service was transferred from temporary to more permanent quarters.

In June, TLD dosimeters were available in large numbers, and a databank of recorded values could be established.

From July onwards, individual dose monitoring was performed for all non-military workers, using either TLDs or film dosimeters.

The dose limits for external irradiation varied with time and with the category of personnel.

According to national regulations established before the accident [M1], for civilian workers, during , the dose limit, 0.

The maximum dose allowed during the year was, therefore, 0. In , the annual dose limits for civilian personnel were lowered to 0.

However, a dose of up to 0. In , the annual dose limit was set at 0. From onwards, the annual dose limit was set at 0.

For military workers, a dose limit of 0. From onwards, the dose limits were the same for military and civilian personnel.

Methods b and c were used for the civilian workers before June , when the number of individual dosimeters was insufficient, and for the majority of the military personnel at any time.

For example, effective doses from external irradiation have been reconstructed by physical means for the staff of the reactor, as well as for the workers who had been detailed to assist them, exposed from 26 April to 5 May [K19].

Personnel location record cards filled in by workers were analysed by experts who had reliable information on the radiation conditions and who had personally participated in ensuring the radiation safety of all operations following the accident.

Using this method, two values were determined: the maximum possible dose and the expected dose. The maximum possible effective doses ranged from less than 0.

It seems that in most cases the maximum possible effective doses are those that were officially recorded.

The main sources of uncertainty associated with the different methods of dose estimation were as follows: a individual dosimetry: incorrect use of the dosimeters inadvertent or deliberate actions leading to either overexposure or underexposure of the dosimeters ; b group dosimetry: very high gradient of exposure rate at the working places at the reactor site; and c time-and-motion studies: deficiencies in data on itineraries and time spent at the various working places, combined with uncertainties in the exposure rates.

The registry data show that the annual averages of the officially recorded doses decreased from year to year, being about mSv in , mSv in , 30 mSv in , and 15 mSv in [I34, S14, T9].

It is, however, difficult to assess the validity of the results that have been reported for a variety of reasons, including a the fact that different dosimeters were used by different organizations without any intercalibration; b the high number of recorded doses very close to the dose limit; and c the high number of rounded values such as 0.

However, the doses do not seem to have been systematicallyoverestimated, because biological dosimetry performed on limited numbers of workers produced results that are also very uncertain but compatible nonetheless with the physical dose estimates [L18].

Using the numbers presented in Table 18, the collective effective dose is estimated to be about 40, man Sv.

A particular group of workers who may have been exposed to substantial doses from external irradiation is made up of the 1, helicopter pilots who were involved in mitigation activities at the power plant in the first three months after the accident [U15].

The doses to pilots were estimated using either personal dosimeters or, less reliably, calculations in which the damaged reactor was treated as a collimated point source of radiation [U15].

The doses obtained by calculation were checked against the results derived from the personal dosimeters for about pilots.

That comparison showed a discrepancy of a less 0. The simplification used to describe the origin of the radiation emitted from the damaged reactor is the main source of uncertainty in the assessment of the doses received by the helicopter pilots.

The average dose estimates are 0. Another group of workers that may have been exposed to substantial doses from external irradiation is the workers from the Kurchatov Institute, a group that includes those who were assigned special tasks inside the damaged unit 4 before and after the construction of the sarcophagus [S36].

A number of nuclear research specialists worked in high-radiation areas of the sarcophagus, without formal recording of doses, on their own personal initiative, and were exposed to annual levels greater than the dose limit of 0.

Doses for this group of 29 persons have been estimated using electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel as well as stable and unstable chromosome aberration techniques [S42, S47].

It was found that 14 of those 29 persons received doses lower than 0. Additional analyses by means of the FISH technique for three of those nuclear research specialists resulted in doses of 0.

Biological dosimetry. Chromosome aberration levels among Chernobyl recovery operation workers were analysed in a number of additional studies.

A good correlation was found, however, for group rather than individual doses. Blood samples of 52 Chernobyl recovery operation workers were analysed by FISH [S32] and simultaneously by conventional chromosome analysis.

Based on FISH measurements, individual biodosimetry estimates between 0. Pooled data for the total group of 52 workers provided an average estimate of 0.

For a group of 34 workers with documented doses, the mean dose estimate of 0. Comparison between the conventional scoring and FISH analyses showed no significant difference.

In a study of Estonian workers, Littlefield et al. In conclusion, FISH does not currently appear to be a sufficiently sensitive and specific technique to allow the estimation of individual doses in the low dose range received by the majority of recovery operation workers.

Lazutka et al. When transformed data were analysed by analysis of variance, alcohol abuse made a significant contribution to total aberrations, chromatid breaks, and chromatid exchanges.

Smoking was associated with frequency of chromatid exchanges, and age was significantly associated with rates of chromatid exchanges and chromosome exchanges [L31].

In another study [S37], the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was evaluated in more than recovery operation workers.

Blood samples were taken from several days to three months after exposure to radiation. The mean frequencies of aberrations for different groups of workers were associated with doses varying from 0.

Glycophorin A assay GPA was used as a possible biological dosimeter on subjects from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with recorded physical dose estimates [B17].

Although a slight increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with loss of the GPA allele was seen among these subjects compared to control subjects from the same countries, this difference was not significant.

The pooled results indicate that the average exposures of these workers were unlikely to greatly exceed mGy, the approximate minimum radiation dose detectable by this assay.

In addition to effective doses from external gamma irradiation, recovery operation workers received skin doses from external beta irradiation as well as thyroid and effective doses from internal irradiation.

The dose to unprotected skin from beta exposures is estimated to have been several times greater than the gamma dose.

Because of the abundance of I and of shorterlived radioiodines in the environment of the reactor during the accident, the recovery operation workers who were on the site during the first few weeks after the accident may have received substantial thyroid doses from internal irradiation.

Information on the thyroid doses is very limited and imprecise. From 30 April through 7 May , in vivo thyroid measurements were carried out on more than recovery operation workers.

These in vivo measurements, which are measurements of the radiation emitted by the thyroid using detectors held or placed against the neck, were used to derive the I thyroidal contents at the time of measurement.

The thyroid doses were derived from the measured I thyroidal contents, using assumptions on the dynamics of intake of I and short-lived radioiodines and on the possible influence of stable iodine prophylaxis.

The average thyroid dose estimate for those workers is about 0. The thyroid doses from internal irradiation are estimated to range from several percent to several hundred percent of the effective doses from external irradiation.

The median value of the ratio of the internal thyroid dose to the external effective dose was estimated to be 0.

It is important to note that information on the influence of stable iodine prophylaxis is limited, as iodine prophylaxis among the recoveryoperation workers was not mandatory nor was it proposed to everybody.

The decision to take stable iodine for prophylactic reasons was made by the individual worker or by the supervisor. The results of interviews of workers including emergencyworkers and recoveryoperation workers who arrived at the plant at the ealy stage of the accident concerning the time when theytook stable iodine for prophylaxis is presented in Table The internal doses resulting from intakes of radionuclides such as 90Sr, Cs, Cs, ,Pu, and others have been assessed for about recovery operation workers who were monitored from April to April [K2, K8, P13, S11].

The majority of them were staff of the power plant who took part in the recovery work starting on days 3 and 4 after the accident. The dose assessment was based on the analysis of whole-body measurements and of radionuclide concentrations in excreta.

The average value of the effective dose committed by the radionuclide intakes was estimated on the basis of ICRP Publication 30 [I17] to be 85 mSv.

The part of the effective dose received between June and September was estimated to have been about 30 mSv. The evacuation of the nearby residents was carried out at different times after the accident on the basis of the radiation situation and of the distance of the populated areas from the damaged reactor.

The initial evacuations were from the town of Pripyat, located just 3 km from the damaged reactor, then from the km zone and from the km zone around the reactor located mostly in Ukraine but also in Belarus.

In addition, a number of villages in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine beyond the km-radius circle centred on the reactor were also evacuated in In Ukraine, the residents of Pripyat 49, persons and of the nearest railway station, Yanov persons , 3 km from the reactor, were the first to be evacuated.

On the evening of 26 April , the radiation exposures in Pripyat were not considered too alarming. Exposure-rate readings were in the range mR h1 [I1], but with the seriousness of the accident becoming evident, the decision to evacuate the residents of the town was taken at During the night, arrangements were made for nearly 1, buses that would be needed to transport the residents.

Around noon on 27 April the evacuation order was broadcast to the people, and the evacuation began at and finished at The over 40, evacuees were taken in by families who lived in settlements in the surrounding districts, especially Polesskoe district of Ukraine.

Most people stayed with these families until August After that they were resettled to apartments in Kiev [I1]. Also in Ukraine, the evacuation of the residents from the southern part of the km zone 10, persons was carried out from 30 April through 3 May.

On the basis of exposure-rate criteria mR h1 on 10 May , 2, persons who resided outside the km zone in the Kiev and in Zhitomir regions were evacuated from 14 May to 16 August.

The last Ukrainian settlement that was evacuated was Bober, with inhabitants, in September Thus, 91, residents from 75 settlements were evacuated in Ukraine in [S20, U14].

The evacuation in Belarus was conducted in three phases. During the first phase 27 May , 11, residents of 51 villages were evacuated from the km zone.

In a second phase June , 6, residents of 28 villages beyond the km zone were evacuated. In the third phase August and September , 7, residents of 29 villages, also beyond the km zone, were evacuated.

In villages evacuated during the second and third phases, the exposure rate was from 5 to 20 mR h1, corresponding to a projected annual effective dose 26 April to 25 April of more than mSv.

The total number of Belarusian residents who were evacuated in was 24, from rural settlements. In the Russian Federation, only residents from four settlements in the Krasnaya Gora district of Bryansk region were evacuated, mainly to other settlements of that district.

In summary, by the autumn of , about , residents from settlements had been evacuated Table By the same time, about 60, cattle and other agricultural animals had been relocated from the evacuated zone.

It is believed that the figure of , was a rough preliminary estimate that was not substantiated. The extent of the exclusion zone was based on two principles: geographical and radiological dose criteria.

A detailed study of the radiation situation carried out in the exclusion zone led to the resettlement of residents of two Ukrainian villages Cheremoshnya and Nivetskoe in June In addition, it was recommended that the residents of 27 other villages might move back after the sarcophagus was constructed 15 settlements in Ukraine and 12 settlements in Belarus.

In accordance with these recommendations, 1, residents of 12 villages in Belarus had been resettled by December However, the Ukrainian authorities considered that resettling the residents inside the exclusion zone was economically and socially undesirable.

Nevertheless, some people, mainly elderly, resettled by themselves to 15 settlements inside the exclusion zone. The population of those 15 settlements was estimated to be about by spring ; about 1, by September ; and about 1, in In , the number is estimated to be The decrease with time is due to migration rather than death.

Doses from external exposure The effective doses from external exposure for the persons evacuated from the Ukrainian part of the km zone were estimated from a measurements of exposure rates performed every hour at about 30 sites in Pripyat and daily at about 80 sites in the km zone and b responses to questionnaires from about 35, evacuees from Pripyat and about settlements; the questionnaires asked for information on their locations, types of houses, and activities at the time of the accident and during a few days thereafter [L9, M2, R10].

Individual effective doses were reconstructed in this way for about 30, evacuees from the city of Pripyat and settlements in the km zone.

The average effective dose from external irradiation for this cohort was estimated to be 17 mSv, with individual values varying from 0.

This value is concordant with the absorbed dose of 20 mGy estimated for the evacuees of Pripyat using Electron Spin Resonance ESR measurements of sugar and exposure rate calculations [N1].

The collective effective dose for the approximately 90, evacuees from the Ukrainian part of the km zone was assessed to be 1, man Sv [R12].

The effective doses and skin doses from external irradiation received by the evacuees from Belarusian territory were estimated on the basis of a 3, measurements of exposure rates performed in the settlements that were evacuated; b spectrometric measurements, carried out mainly in May and June , of the gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides deposited on the ground; c measurements of the Cs ground deposition density for each settlement from the Belarusian data bank [D4]; and d responses of about 17, evacuees from the territory inside the km zone and from adjoining areas.

It was assessed that the doses to evacuees from external irradiation were mainly due to radionuclides deposited on the ground, because external irradiation during the passage of the radioactive cloud played a minor role.

The method developed to assess the doses included the reconstruction of the radionuclide composition of the deposition in each of the evacuated settlements in Belarusian territory and the estimation of the contribution to the dose from each radionuclide [S29].

The distribution of individual doses received by the residents of a given settlement was found to be appropriately described by a log-normal function with a geometric standard deviation of about 1.

The highest average effective doses, about mSv, were estimated to be received by the population of two villages located inside the km zone in Khoyniki district: Chamkov and Masany.

The main source of uncertainty in the estimation of the average effective doses from external irradiation for the Belarusian evacuees is the assessment of the activity ratios of Te and I to Cs in the deposition.

The collective effective dose from external irradiation for the 24, evacuees from Belarus is assessed to be man Sv.

The average skin doses from beta and gamma radiation are estimated to be 34 times greater than the effective doses and to range up to 1, mGy.

The uncertainty of the average skin doses in a given settlement is estimated to be characterized by a geometric standard deviation of about 1.

Doses from internal exposure The thyroid doses received from intake of I by the evacuees from Pripyat were derived from a 4, measurements of radioiodine content of their thyroid glands made, on average, 23 days after the accident and b responses to questionnaires by 10, evacuees on their locations and consumption of stable iodine [G8].

Average individual and collective thyroid doses to the evacuees from Pripyat are shown in Table The thyroid doses from I, which were for the most part due to inhalation, were highest for year-old children about 1.

The main factor influencing the individual dose was found to be the distance of the residence from the reactor [G8].

Thyroid doses from intake of I to other evacuees from the km zone were also estimated on the basis of measurements of thyroid contents in 10, persons [L12, R10].

When dose estimates obtained for the evacuees from Pripyat are compared with those for the evacuees from other settlements of the km zone Table 21 , the doses to the latter are seen to be somewhat higher than those to the evacuees from Pripyat, especially for adults.

This may be because Pripyat was evacuated before the rest of the km zone, giving the population of the km zone more time to consume foodstuffs contaminated with I.

Using for the settlements of the km zone the same age structure as that for Pripyat in Table 21, the collective thyroid dose from I intake for the entire population of evacuees from Ukraine is tentatively estimated to be about 30, man Gy.

Evaluation of thyroid doses to the evacuated population of Belarus is presented in Table The collective thyroid dose estimate for this population is 25, man Gy.

Inhalation of short-lived radioiodines and of Te contributed somewhat to the thyroid dose received by evacuees. According to Goulko et al. This maximal value was obtained by taking into account an inhalation for one hour occurring one hour after the accident.

Khrouch et al. Internal effective doses from Cs were estimated for the Belarusian evacuees on the basis of measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides in foodstuffs and of whole-body measurements of Cs content, in addition to the environmental measurements already mentioned in Section II.

The average internal exposure from radiocaesium in milk for the evacuated population is estimated to be 1. The main sources of uncertainty in the assessment of the internal doses from Cs are considered to be the dates when the cows were first put on pasture in each settlement and the actual countermeasures that were applied in the settlement.

The collective effective dose for the 24, Belarusian evacuees from internal exposure was assessed to be man Sv [S29]. Residual and averted collective doses Estimates of collective doses for the populations that were evacuated in from the contaminated areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are summarized in Table The collective effective and thyroid doses are estimated to be about 3, man Sv and 55, man Gy, respectively.

Most of the collective doses were received by the populations of Belarus and Ukraine. The evacuation of the residents of Pripyat 28 April and of the rural settlements inside the km zone beginning of May prevented the potential occurrence of deterministic effects and resulted in collective doses substantially lower than would have been experienced if there had been no evacuation.

A comparison of the external effective doses for the Belarusians, calculated with and without evacuation from the km zone, is presented in Table 24 [S24].

Because of the evacuation, the number of inhabitants with doses greater than 0. A similar assessment of averted collective dose for the evacuated Ukrainian inhabitants led to a value of about 6, man Sv.

Therefore, the averted collective dose from external exposure for the , persons evacuated in is estimated to be 8, man Sv.

The thyroid collective dose was also reduced to some extent. It is estimated that a single intake reduced the expected thyroid dose by a factor of 1.

An upper estimate of the averted collective thyroid dose for the , evacuees is about 15, man Gy [A10]. Areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have been defined with reference to the background level of Cs deposition caused by atmospheric weapons tests, which when corrected for radioactive decay to , is about 24 kBq m2 0.

Considering variations about this level, it is usual to specify the level of 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km 2 as the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

Many people continued to live in the contaminated territories surrounding the Chernobyl reactor, although efforts were made to limit their doses.

Areas of Cs deposition density greater than kBq m2 15 Ci km2 were designated as areas of strict control. Within these areas, radiation monitoring and preventive measures were taken that have been generally successful in maintaining annual effective doses within 5 mSv.

Initially, the areas of strict control included settlements and a population of , in an area of 10, km2 [I3, I4].

The sizes and populations of the areas of strict control within Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are given in Table Those population numbers applied to the first few years following the accident.

Because of extensive migration out of the most contaminated areas and into less contaminated areas, the current population in the areas of strict control is much lower in Belarus and Ukraine and somewhat lower in the Russian Federation.

In , the number of people living in the areas of strict control was about , [K23, R11]. The distribution of the population residing in contaminated areas in according to Cs deposition density interval is provided in Table The total population is about 5 million and is distributed almost equally among the three countries.

The most important pathways of exposure of humans were found to be the ingestion of milk and other foodstuffs contaminated with I, Cs and Cs and external exposure from radioactive deposits of short-lived radionuclides Te, I, Ba, Ru, Ce, etc.

In the first few months, because of the significant release of the short-lived I, the thyroid was the most exposed organ. The main route of exposure for thyroid dose was the pasture-cow-milk pathway, with a secondary component from inhalation.

Hundreds of thousands of measurements of radioiodine contents in the thyroids of people were conducted in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to assess the importance of the thyroid doses.

During the first year after the accident, doses from external irradiation in areas close to the reactor arose primarily from the ground deposition of radionuclides with half-lives of one year or less.

In more distant areas, the radiocaesiums became the greatest contributors to the dose from external irradiation only one month after the accident.

Over the following years, the doses received by the populations from the contaminated areas have come essentially from external exposure due to Cs and Cs deposited on the ground and internal exposure due to contamination of foodstuffs by Cs and Cs.

Other, usually minor, contributions to the long-term radiation exposures include the consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with 90Sr and the inhalation of aerosols containing Pu, Pu and Am.

The internal exposures to Cs and Cs result in relatively uniform doses over all organs and tissues of the body.

A very large number of measurements of exposure rates, as well as of radiocaesium in soil and in foodstuffs, have been made in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to assess the effective doses and have been used to prepare compilations of annual effective doses received by the most exposed residents in the contaminated settlements.

These compilations, which were prepared for regulatory purposes, tend to overestimate the average doses that were received during the years These methods were introduced in order to make reasonable decisions regarding the radiation protection of the population, and also to obtain dose estimates for use in epidemiological studies, where accurate individual dose estimates are needed, or in risk assessment studies, where collective doses over limited areas are necessary, and they were an improvement in the general state of knowledge in the field of dose reconstruction.

These methods are based on as many measurements as possible, either in the area under consideration or for the individual of interest.

The experience thus far acquired and the data accumulated are allowing more realistic dose assessment procedures to be formulated.

Data from whole-body counting of ,Cs have allowed a better estimation of Cs retention times in relation to sex for adults and in relation to age, body mass and height for children [L1].

A careful analysis of the thyroid activity measurements, along with the consideration of Cs deposition densities and of relevant environmental parameters, has improved the reliability of estimated thyroid doses, although much work remains to be done [G7].

When the above methods of dose estimation are used, they may yield several estimates of dose, not necessarily comparable, for example maximal projected doses, average projected doses and actual doses.

In local areas there could also be wide deviations from the average settlement dose owing to particular control measures or individual behaviour.

Estimates of effective doses per unit deposition density from external and internal exposure have been derived for various districts and times following the accident.

These effective dose estimates, as well as the thyroid doses from intake of radioiodines, are discussed below. Effective doses have been estimated in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the basis of a the large number of measurements of exposure rates and of radionuclide concentrations in soil carried out in the contaminated areas and b population surveys on indoor and outdoor occupancy as a function of age, season, occupation and type of dwelling.

The location i can be indoors place of work, place of residence, etc. The absorbed dose in air at the reference location, Da, was usually inferred from the measured or assumed radionuclide distribution in deposition.

The conversion factor from absorbed dose in air to effective dose, Fk, was determined using anthropomorphic phantoms simulating individuals from one year of age to adult, containing TLDs in many organs, exposed to radiocaesium outdoors and indoors [E7, G1, G19].

The values of Fk were found to be 0. There is good agreement between the two sets of values used for representative groups.

Detailed information on the location and occupancy factors derived from surveys among the populations of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine is available [E7]; for example, values of occupancy factors in the summertime for rural populations of the three countries are presented in Table It is clear from Tables 27 and 28 that there are substantial differences in the reduction factor depending on the type of dwelling and occupation.

The values used for the representative group are meant to reflect the age and socioprofessional composition of the population living in a typical dwelling.

Estimates of external effective doses for specific groups can be obtained by multiplying the dose for the representative group by a modifying factor, as given in Table 29 [B14].

The values of the modifying factor were validated with data from individual dosimetry TLD measurements [E8]. Values of the overall coefficient used to calculate the average external effective doses, Db, on the basis of the absorbed dose in air, Da, are shown in Table These overall coefficients have different values for urban and rural populations, but for both populations, the values are averaged over age, occupation, and type of dwelling.

For times of less than one year after the accident, the reference absorbed dose rate in air was calculated assuming that the radioactive deposit was a plane source below a soil slab with a mass per unit area of 0.

During the first few months after the accident, the dose rate in air varied according to the radionuclide composition of the activity deposited, which, as shown in Table 6, varied according to direction and distance from the reactor.

As an example, Figure XIII illustrates the variations in the contributions to the absorbed dose rate in air of various radionuclides from a contaminated area of the Russian Federation [G1].

Contributions of radionuclides to the absorbed dose rate in air in a contaminated area of the Russian Federation during the first several months after the Chernobyl accident [G1].

As shown in Figure XIV, the short-lived radioisotopes of refractory elements, such as 95Zr, Ru, and Ce, played an important role in the doses from external irradiation received during the first year after the accident in areas close to the reactor site [M3].

Following decay of the short-lived emitters, the annual doses per unit Cs deposition were similar in all areas, although a slight decrease was observed with increasing distance from the reactor [J1].

Table 31 presents published estimates of normalized effective doses from external irradiation for various periods after the accident and for rural and urban areas in the three countries that were most affected by the accident.

The effective doses from external irradiation are estimated to be higher in rural areas than in urban areas by a factor of about 1.

At times greater than one year after the accident, the absorbed dose rate in air came essentially from the gamma radiation from Cs and Cs.

The models used in the three countries Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to derive the variation with time of the normalized absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above undisturbed ground in the settlements of the contaminated areas are somewhat different.

In Belarus, a Monte Carlo method was used; the vertical profile of Cs and Cs in soil was simulated by a set of infinite isotropic thin sources placed at different depths of soil and an exponential decrease with depth, with an initial relaxation length of 0.

Contributions of radionuclides to the absorbed dose rate in air in areas close to the Chernobyl reactor site [M3].

Asfendijarov, Almaty, Kazakhstan Objective of this research was studying the condition of lipid peroxygenation LP in animals exposed to various concentrations of uranium ore dust DUO.

The materials and research methods Experiments were conducted in nonlinear rats. Inhalational influence by uranium ore dust was carried out in vitro, in special exposure chambers UIZ Experimental animals were divided into two testing groups.

Controlling for each testing group were the animals which were kept in identical exposure chambers, but were not exposed to DUO.

DUO inhalation was carried out during 5 days a week, for 4 hours per day continuously throughout days.

The condition of the LP was estimated according to concentration of malondialdehyde MDA and superoxide dismutase SOD in lungs after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months from the beginning of the research.

Research results Results of the conducted series of research showed that at DUO influence on animals in a dose of 5 MCL, the level of MDA formation after 1 month from the influence beginning increased in comparison with the control group by During the next 2 months signs of MDA accumulation in lungs remain, but its accumulation was lower than on the 30th day of the observation.

Similar to the previous series of the observation, the steady effect of increase in MDA formation occurs after 4 months from the beginning of influences and specifies that the time threshold of priming in 3 and 4 months of influences is critical.

The main mechanism of protection of an organism from free radicals is enzyme of SOD. At that the expressiveness of this indicator depended on duration of influence of DUO.

At the tested animals decrease in activity of enzyme in all terms of experiment was observed, but the most considerable it was by the end 4 months of observation on Thus, the conducted researches testify that influence by the dust of uranium ore leads to an exhaustion of antioxidant systems, especially aggravated upon duration of the exposure.

Filimonova N. The modern psychosomatic medicine developed dramatically in the latest fifty years is not conceivable without psychoanalysis.

It owes psychoanalysis the stimulus for systematical study of psychosomatic interrelations in the disease process, a number of fundamental conceptions for theory and practice, which still remain the postulate and the ground of psychosomatics.

The available literature on psychoanalytical psychosomatics does not provide summarized systematized investigations of theoretical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

Therefore, the absence of systematical investigations in this field and importance of the problem for psychoanalytical psychotherapy determined the theme of the present work.

Innovation of the research. The present work is a first attempt so far to summarize rather few publications of domestic and foreign authors on psychosomatics.

Object of the research is a complex of theoretical aspects of psychoanalytical psychosmatics. The aim of the research is assessment of different psychoanalytical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

The following tasks were put forward: - To trace down the main directions and approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the problem of psychosomatics and to compare them on the basis of historical consideration; - To revise psychoanalytic theories of psychosomatics by S.

Freud; - To revise psychosomatic theories and models of S. Metodological postulates of the work are theories and conceptions of leading psychoanalytics: S.

Freud, F. Alexander, G. Ammon, O. Kernberg, H. Freyberger and others; and also leading foreign and domestic psychiatrists: V.

Broitigam, P. Kristian, M. Rad, B. Luban-Plozza, V. Krieger, K. Pederak-Hoffman, V. Podkorytov, A.

Smulevich, V. Gindikin, Ya. Obuhov and others. Methods of the research are theoretical study, comparison, systematization of classical and modern psychoanalytical and medical literature.

Practical significance of the work. And today it has the right to become a fundamental science dealing complexly with etiopathic processes, which occur in the patient and hence the treatment should be multifaceted, with consideration of pathogenesis and aetiology of the disease and individual peculiarities of the patient.

This approach for assessment and analysis of analytic conceptions and modern theories enabled to come to an important statement that psychosomatic diseases are determined by a fixation in the preoedipal stage of development with predomination of borderline level of the development of the psyche.

Galimzyanov V. Vasilkova A. At present we observe the growth of morbidity and expansion of its territorial borders. The treatment of such patients must be complex.

The analysis of a complex therapy showed a higher effectiveness when the treatment was started at early stages. The etiotropic therapy implies an intake of Tetracycline antibiotics in advisable doses within three days after the elevated temperature was lowered.

The pathogenetic therapy is aimed at reducing intoxication and its manifestations. In case of an expressed hemorrhagic syndrome and presence of thrombocytopenia the preparations, such as ascorutin, vicasol and ascorbic acid should be indicated.

A symptomatic therapy is indicated to all patients to relieve pain, improve sleep, correct hemodynamics. Doxycycline is the most recommended medication for initial treatment of AFR in medium and severe cases.

Clinical experimental data of AFR pathogenetic study show the T-lymphocyte deficit, immune status depression, interferron, in conditions of hyperthermia.

In this connection during the last years we observe constant optimization of standard doxicyclintherapy in patients with ARF.

In clinical practice of ARF treatment the effectiveness of interferon was demonstrated in combination with doxycycline and complexly with immunotropic preparations and combination of standard treatment 33 with inductors of interferon.

The combined action of doxycycline and interferon preparations resulted in restoration of normal homeostasis.

Clinically, diminishing of prolonged ARF symptoms such as weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, tachycardia, eczantema was manifested, and consequently, reduction of disease duration and a shorter hospitalization of such patients was achieved.

Cycloferron was used by 0,3 g on 1,2,4,6,8 days once a day. In the result of indicated combined therapy there were discovered that the usage of complex therapy of ARF of interferron inductors with doxycycline may shorten the duration of clinical symptoms of this disease: fever, intoxication symptoms, may facilitate a sooner resolution of rash.

Such therapy leads to normalization of indicators of humoral-cellular immunity, phagocytosis, increases the concentration of immunoglobulins.

Investigation of immune status of patients with ARF revealed an immunodeficiency condition. In this connection we decided to use the preparation which had correcting action to the immune system of human being, that was imunofan, for complex treatment of ARF.

The treatment showed a positive effect of imunofan, enabling to reduce the duration of intoxication symptoms in AFR patients.

Imunofan possesses antiinflammatory, desintoxicational and immunomodulating effects. The usage of imunofan in clinic gave the possibility to prove its desintoxicational and hepatoprotective action.

In patients with severe AFR with prolong hyperthermia we observed expressed sympoms of intoxication. Such symptoms as pain in muscles and joints might persist even after temperature normalization.

In this connection during the convalescence, after normalization of temperature and rash regression the patients with AFR received the treatment of LILR.

The usage of lazertherapy accelerated diminishing of weakness, headache, and eczantema. Even more positive dynamics was registered in duration of myalgia and arthtralgia.

On the background of using LILR the duration of these symptoms was shortened twofold. The use of such therapy promotes an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay.

The objective is to define the approach to the treatment of joint diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine. Methods: clinical observation of the patients, diagnostics using the methods of traditional Chinese medicine, Korean Sutczi-Chimsur therapy, methods of functional diagnostics and laboratory methods.

Results: A new approach to diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of articulation diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine was created.

Articulation diseases are one of the most common human illnesses. The causes of most of them are still not found out.

At present scientists associate the incidence of the disease with sex, age, environment, metabolism, immunity factor and the way of life of the patient.

Unfortunately the conventional treatment is followed by side effects and mostly causes only temporary improvement leaving the problem unsolved for many years.

In Chinese medicine arthritis and other joint diseases are defined as stagnation condition; the symptoms are: location and intensity of pain, extent of inflammation, size of the edema and extent of the organ dysfunction.

There are inner organism condition and outer environment factors which cause the joint diseases.

This leads to a disorder of regeneration processes and metabolism in osseous tissue, tendon and cartilaginous tissues. Our methods are based on studying the intensity of the pain syndrome by the duct of the channels around the joints.

Around each big joint from each side there are six channels. For example, around the hands joints there are lungs, colon, heart, small intestine, pericardium and three body parts 35 channels.

Around the feet articulations there are spleen, pancreas, stomach, kidneys, urinary bladder, liver and gall bladder channels. All the channels surround the join and pain mostly begins in the location of the channel.

Our treatment takes into consideration the cause and pathogenesis of the joints and channels duct, determines Ying or Yang type by the syndromes outer-inner, heat-cold, excess-shortage and the main organism syndromes.

The found pathology determines the treatment. It goes the same regarding other joints. It often happens that the patient does not feel pain in an organ or system and the pain in the legs joints can signify a disorder in the stomach channel system.

The important role in treatment of such syndromes play acupuncture, Korean SutcziChimsur therapy, homoeopathy, herbal medicine and Ayurvedic treatment.

In severe cases correction with conventional medications is recommended. Only combination of all treatment and prevention methods can lead to positive results.

Knowing only the location of pain and the channels duct we can detect the organ or system pathology and indicate the treatment. Gordeeva G.

Rutenburg V. Bezhenar T. The advantages of simultaneous operations such as reduction of traumatic intervention, intraoperative and postoperative complications, less hospital stay and temporary disability and postoperative lethality are continuously proved.

Nevertheless the number of simultaneous operations with laparoscope methods remains as insignificant as 36 Programm Abstracts before their introduction.

Objective: To assess the possibilities of laparoscope surgery in women with gynecological disorders and renal cyst, to optimize the approaches of planned simultaneous laparoscope operations in gynecology.

Materials and Methods. Cystodenomectomy was was performed in 3 cases in 4 patients with ovary cystodenomas. Coagulation of endometriosis focus was accomplished to 8 patients with external genital endometriosis I-II stages, which was diagnosed in the course of diagnostic laparoscopy 7 patients with isolated form and 1 in TPS combination.

No display any significant distinctions in these indexes. There were not any complications in postoperative period, it was typical.

No lethal outcome. No difference between average period of hospital treatment malingering operations and hospital treatment cause of laparoscopic hysterectomy or adnexectomy.

Therefore, we can note that application case: renal cyst of auxiliary simultant stages of surgical treatment of gynecologic pathology does not increase complication frequencies.

Performance of andovideosurgical malingering treatment in cases of gynecologic pathology has a number of features, connected with the choice of access.

For cysts localization in back surfaces or in lower kidney pole it is preferably to use retroperitoneoscopic access, and for cysts which situated on front surfaces or in upper pole and also parapelvical cysts localization - transperitonealic.

Therefore, in patients with indication for malingering surgical treatments of with renal cysts in combination with gynecologic pathology we recommend to use transperitonealic access.

Retroperitoneoscopic access might be justified only in cases when malingering diagnostic laparoscopia is needed. Karabintseva L. Despite of great interest of scientists, the state and industry to the problems of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in patients with occupational diseases, the use phytopreparations is still insignificant.

Therefore the aim of our work was to investigate a factual use of herbal medications in treatment and rehabilitation of vibration disease and chronic silicosis.

Content-analysis of medical and sanatorium records of the patients with vibration and chronic silicosis showed that phytopreparations are used on the stage of resort rehabilitation.

Most of the patients were treated with phytotherapy in herbal lounges at rehabilitation centers. All infusions were made by local manufacturers.

Thus, the investigation in factual application of phytopreparations confirmed its inadequate use especially at the stages of prevention and treatment of occupational diseases.

However the consumer preferences among the patients and doctors demonstrated interest to phytopreparations. The results of the conducted investigation as well as advantages of herbal medicines a low toxicity, their mildness and multifaceted effect require further researches of rational application of phytopreparations for occupational diseases.

Kiryanov N. Ezhova N. Strelkov L. Saburova D. Leon M. McKee V. Shkolnikov E. This has led to a substantial reduction in the population of the country.

Compared to other industrialised countries, over the past 20 years, mortality has been particularly high among working-age men, resulting in a 39 low life expectancy at birth among men.

If mortality rates in the future among men remain the same as they are today, only half of young men aged 20 will survive until age 60 years.

Since we have carried out a series of investigations of the high mortality among working-age men in a typical Russian city to the West of the Ural mountains.

This included both analysis of official statistics as well as epidemiological and sociological interview studies of live men and those dying in the period The factors associated with problem drinking among men in our study were closely related to socioeconomic circumstances.

Low educational level, being divorced and lack of full-time paid employment were particularly strongly linked to heavy drinking.

If these data could be applied to Russian Federation, this amount suggests that up to excess deaths could be avoided if hazardous alcohol consumption was eliminated.

Based on data from forensic autopsies which were undertaken on almost all deaths in this age group , medical experts and pathologists established that the most common category of cause of death was injuries, poisoning and violence; cardiovascular diseases was the next most common.

Other death causes were rare in occurrence. Thus, our research shows that high mortality in working-age men is associated in many cases with heavy alcohol drinking, and suggests that the adverse effects of alcohol could be diminished with education, availability of permanent job and family.

Smoking is also an important contributor to the very high mortality seen among working age men. It is necessary to develop and implement coordinated policies to reduce risk factors for serious ill health and death seen in the working age population in Russia.

These would include steps to reduce alcohol consumption as a whole and to reduce smoking. Steps also need to be taken to improve treatments for those with alcohol problems.

Most importantly, steps need to be taken to minimise the transmission of these dangerous behaviours to the next generation of Russian citizens.

Klepikova E. Krasnov O. Kolesnikova A. Ditretiophenyl 3- 3, 5 di-tret-butylhydrophenyl propyltiosulphonat sodium is crystal powder of white colour, with a specific smell and a bitterish taste.

In the Ufspectrum there is one maximum of absorption at nm. Ditretiophenyl possesses hydro properties: it is easily dissolve in water, dissolve in spirits and very little in chloroform and benzene.

These immunodepression activities have been tested on experimental model immunocomplex gromerynephrit. Thus, ditrethiofenyl the water-soluble compounds, showing in experimental models in vitro and in vivo expressed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and radioprotection activities, can find application as a nontoxic immunodepressant.

Kobets Yu. On the different amount of irritant an organism answers with different quality of adaptative reactions.

In response to weak irritants general nonspecific reaction of training develops. The irritants of moderate force cause development of reaction of activating.

It is characterized by the raise of protective and regulatory systems of the organism. The purpose of our research was to develop the expert medical system, intended for the control and differential diagnostics of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of the organism in children with recurrent bronchitis RB , with the purpose of optimization of treatment under conditions of health resort.

For decision of the set problem the analysis of adaptative reactions AR was carried out by the signal indexes of leucocytic formula with the estimation of common levels of reactivity LR according to L.

Garkavi with co-authors in children from 7 to 14 years old, patients with RB at health resort. All children got traditional sanatorium-and-resort treatment with the use of climatic therapy, thalassotherapy, mud therapy and complex of preformation physical factors.

For all children procedures of low intensity low frequency physiotherapy, aeronotherapy , moderate intensity laser irradiation and procedures with strong effect circular douche, sodium chloride baths 42 Programm Abstracts were included in the complex of rehabilitation measures taking into account rehabilitative reactions on admission.

Control of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of children with RB in dynamics and estimation of efficiency of therapy was carried out with the help of the developed by us system ADAPT Analyser 1.

In other words against a background of treatment in children with RB a quiet activation with tense began to occur 3 times as much more frequently, that was clinically manifested by the reduction of exacerbation of bronchitis 1,8 times less for subsequent 6 months.

Tishchenko und die Analyse des vegetativen Nervensystems nach Baevsky. Die Norm ist 1. Bei den Patientinnen wurden die Erkrankungen des Atmungssystems nicht diagnostiziert.

Die Patienten wurden ambulant behandelt. Die Verbesserung sowohl des subjektiven als auch objektiven Zustandes kam nach dem ersten Behandlungstag.

All dies wurde auch in den Forschungen widergespiegelt. Die Anwendung der tetrapolaren Impedanz-Rheoplethysmographie nach M.

Beseitigung oder Linderung eines der Symptome sind einer der Wege der Krankheitsbehandlung. Krasnova A. Asfendiyarov, Almaty, Kazakstan Urgency.

Diabetes Milletus DM remains one of the urgent problems of medicine, for the last years it has become the significant one.

WHO considers it to be a non-infectious epidemy of the 20th century. In such patients a painless form of myocardial infarction MI prevailed resulted from presence of autonomous diabetic neuropathy, as well as transmural or macrofoccal myocardium affection.

To study the extent of stenoses due to atherosclerotic process. Materials and methods. Results and discussion. Over the last 2 years in Almaty muncicipal clinical hospital patients died from MI, in patients DM was observed that accounted for Heart mass was from to gr.

The degree of right and left arteries stenoses was different. Significant differences on clinical, instrumental ECG parameters MI spread, localization, complications and autopsy data spread of myocardium necrosis focus, stenoses of right and left coronary arteries, heart mass, thickness of left ventricle wall were not marked at analysis of clinical case- histories of the died patients.

Conclusions: 1. Stenoses of the left coronary artery prevailed over the right one. Significant differences during MI in patients with DM and in patients without disorders of carbohydrate metabolism were not revealed.

One of the leading places in development of diseases occupies toxoplasma gondii, whose spread is overwhelming. It causes practically all major contemporary diseases: coronary vascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, neuropsychic diseases and numerous pathologies of digestion, the musculoskeletal system, urinary tract and urinoexcretory ways and many others.

Atherosclerosis is very common and until now the medicine has attributed cholesterol to its cause. Despite of this no single patient in the world has been healed from atherosclerosis and other coronary vascular pathology.

However over the last decade a virus nature of this pathology has been broadly debated. Then why does antitoxoplasma treatment prevent the progression of the atherosclerosis?

Why the medications that work against toxoplasm are even by the conventional medicine are called antiarrhythmics. How to explain that antiparasitary preparations reverse the development of pathology, restore the correct heart rhythm although the blame is laid on cholesterol and viruses which are not sensitive to these preparations?

This might be applied to other spheres and in particular to neuropsychic diseases. As an example, schizophrenia is cured with antitoxoplasma preparations whilst it is not acknowledged as its cause.

It seems that it will not be possible to ignore the problem of toxoplasm in future. Professor Flegr from 46 Programm Abstracts Karlovy University in Prague testified that toxoplasm so negatively affects car drivers that they are in 2,7 times more susceptible to accidents.

The researches including Americans Gloria Mender, Kevin Lafferti showed that due to toxoplasm exposure the characters of nations change.

Ultimately Prof. Glenn Makkonki, Univesity of Leeds demonstrated at a biochemical level the process of the development of schizophrenia through neurotransmitter dopamine.

The spread of toxoplasm is aggressive and there is no reliable diagnosis. There are no preparations that meet the necessary requirements.

The existing medications enlist a couple of preparations to which toxoplasm promptly adapts. This makes the situation even more serious considering the fact that the parasite prevails in an encysted form.

Kulishova V. Putsenko L. Baranova O. As the performance results there are five patents, five defended theses, two monographs.

The group of scientists became laureates of the Prize established by the Administration of Altai Region in the field of science and technique.

GMT is referred to the methods with a wide scope of therapeutical activities: immunomodulating, hypotensive, regeneratory, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, bacteriostatic, sedative, and adaptive ones.

GMT produces vigorating effect, improves mental and physical productivity, quickly replenishes the body after physical and nervous strain and raises functional reserves.

Complementation a complex treatment of hypertension with GMT renders a proved correction influence on central and cerebral hemodynamics, normalizes vegetative status, and enables cut dose of medications by half.

GMT application for secondary prevention of AH allows correcting such risk factors as hypercoagulation and hyperlipedimia.

The use of GMT in a complex treatment of menopausal syndrome results in a manifested clinical effect, which displayed in a qualitative reduction of flushes, sweating, blood pressure stabilization, improved night sleep, decrease of dizziness, positive cerebral hemodynamics, normalization of vegetative and psychoemotional status.

A definite experience on GMT use for a complex treatment and prevention of peptic ulcer disease has been gained. Application of this non-medication therapy enables to obtain 47 a better reparative and anti-recurrent effects compared to the control group.

Taking in account that PUD is related to psychosomatic illnesses we would like to stress the positive influence of GMT on psychoemotional status, which manifested in evident reduction of anxiety, depression and increased vitality and optimism.

A special note required on GMT application in oncological patients. The experience of numerous local oncological centers testifies that the magnetic field produces sanogenic and immunomodulating effects in the organism, and exposes tumor cells to a direct destructive effect.

The researches conducted in Altai Oncological Centre reported an improvement of the therapeutical result when GMT is added to chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgical treatment in patients with breast, lung, stomach and genital cancer.

We carried out clinical researches on GMT influence on involution of myomatous nodes in women of reproductive age. Therefore GMT is a comparatively new direction in physiotherapy, which possesses a multifaceted activity.

Clinical researches confirm its beneficial influence on the organism and application feasibility for a number of diseases.

No doubt, the method requires further assessment, even more rigorous clinical approbation and introduction in medical practice.

As a results of studies the chemical composition of a whole series of medicinal plants were isolated more than substances simple phenols, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, flavonoids , among which are new 20 compounds.

The structural elucidation of isolated compounds was carried out with the use of UV-, NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, different chemical transformations.

Kurkin, ; There were established relationships between of the spectral and pharmacological activities of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and of their chemical structures.

Besides, in accordingly with new chemical classification of the medicinal plants V. Kurkin, there were introduced in the pharmacognosy so classes of biologically active phenolic compounds as xanthones and quinones.

The above-mentioned textbook includes the description of a whole series of the new medicinal plants, which contain the phenolic compounds: Echinacea purpurea L.

In the present time the Pharmacopoeia of Russia contains about 30 medicinal plants, which are attributed to the flavonoids as the leader group of biologically active compounds.

Besides, in the case of 25 medicinal plants, contained essential oil, saponins and other substances, the flavonoids are interesting as biologically active compounds, namely: Tanacetum vulgare L.

In the present paper are discussed also the actual aspects of the modern standardization of the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

The new possibilities for the development of pharmacognosy gives the use of the thin layer chromatography, the high performance liquid chromatography, UV-, UR-, 1H-NMR-, 13C-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and other modern chemical, physical-chemical and spectral methods.

The modern standardization must be based on the use of standard samples in the analytical methods for purpose of the identification and quantitative determination of biologically active compounds in the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

In the course of our investigations there were proposed the series of standard samples for purpose of the standardization of Rhodiola rosea L.

The phenylpropanoids are perspective biologically active compounds of medicinal plants which are of the great interest as the sources of the tonic, immunostimulating, adaptogenic, antioxidative and hepatoprotective phytopharmaceuticals.

The greatest interest are glycosides of cinnamic alcohol, pcoumaric alcohol, sinapic alcohol of Salix viminalis L. Besides it should be to consider as perspective medicinal plants, contained the cinnamic acids and its derivatives namely rosmarinic acid Melissa officinalis L.

The above-mentioned medicinal plants are of the great interest for homoeopathy. Material and Methods. For our experiments we collected the plant materials of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes , Syringa vulgaris barks , Silybum marianum fruits , Echinacea purpurea L.

The some drugs were collected from widely distributed plants in Samara region Salix viminalis barks or in Khabarovsk Krai Eleutherococcus senticosus rhizomes.

There was studied also the biomass of Rhodiola rosea L. The structural elucidation of the isolated phenylpropanoids was carried out by means of the UV-, 1H-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and several chemical transformations acetylation, methylation, acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

The comparative study of the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the phytopreparations containing phenylpropanoids and of some phenylpropanoids rosavin, triandrin, syringin and silybin on white rats Wistar was carried out.

Results und Discussion. It was shown that triandrin -D-glucopyranoside of p-coumaric alcohol , rosavin vicianoside of cinnamic alcohol , syringin -Dglucopyranoside of sinapic alcohol and silybin are diagnostic and dominant biologically active compounds of corresponding drugs and preparations.

The standard samples of triandrin R. There was shown, that Rhodiola rosea L. The greatest anxiolytic activities there were shown for the Rhodiola rosea tinctures, Melissa officinalis tinctures, Syringa vulgaris tinctures.

Phytopreparations Melissa officinalis tinctures, Eleutherococcus senticosus fluid extracts and Syringa vulgaris tinctures are interesting as antidepressant preparations.

There were established the relationships between the chemical structures of phenylpropanoids rosavin, triandrin, syringin and silybin and of their spectral properties and biologically activities.

There was determined the greatest anxiolytic effect for phenylpropanoids syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus rhizomes, Syringa vulgaris barks and rosavin from Rhodiola rosea rhizomes.

Kushugulova A. Shevcov A. Kuranov E. Zholdybayeva A. Seydalina S. Oralbaeva S. Kozhakhmetov G. Kulmambetova S.

Rakhimova I. Tynybayeva E. Based on the analysis morphological-cultural and physiological-biochemical parameters, 74 Lactobacillus spp isolates were divided into 3 main groups: Lb.

All three groups are evenly distributed across all regions of Kazakhstan. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rDNA and interspacer region of 16 - 23 S rDNA revealed: 25 cultures showed a picture of hydrolysis, typical for Lb.

A direct nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rDNA was carried out. Correlation analysis of phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of 16S rDNA revealed incorrect identification of 14 isolates.

In the course of this work there were found new alleles fusA option 1 , ileS - Two new allele, lepA - Two new allele, leuS - one new allele, recG - one new allele.

The combination of new alleles allowed dividing isolates of L. In each of these steps it is possible to take control over gene expression, both on the part of the genome, and from the abiogenous factors.

Formation of lactic acid bacteria is of practical importance, as a part of the antimicrobial mechanism.

Study of mechanisms of acid production is actual for biochemical use, as well as for genetic methods, which give us the opportunity to manage the processes of acid production.

The aim of our research is to study the mechanisms of gene expression responsible for the production of lactic acid.

As the object of studies strains of Lactobacillus casei were used, which characterize by common for this type of morphological, cultural and biochemical properties.

Bacterial strains are isolated from different sources in different regions of Kazakhstan, typing by sequencing as Lactobacillus casei.

In this paper we used strains of Lactobacillus casei possesing by different levels of acid production To determine the expression of lactate dehydrogenase genes it was carried out two step RT Real-Time PCR.

As intercalating agent it was used SybrGreenI. To determine the initial number of cDNA sample it was used the algorithm describing the behavior of the kinetic curve.

The graph for determining the melting curves of the gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase had a peak with the melting point, indicating that only the accumulation of specific products.

The maximum value acid activity of Lactobacillus casei correspond to the maximum level of lactate dehydrogenase gene.

The coefficient of correlation is 0. It was found, the level of lactate dehydrogenase mRNA varies slightly. The data obtained are preliminary and do not give the full specifications of acid production depending on the lactate dehydrogenase gene expression.

Kuznetsov N. Grigorieva E. To study effects of a cardioselective beta-adrenoblocker bisoprolol on vascular wall endothelium function and external respiration function in stable angina of effort combined with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.

Endothelial function and external respiration were studied before and after 4-week treatment with bisoprolol in 36 patients with stable angina and COPD using assessment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation EDVD and concentration of nitric oxide metabolites.

Significant improvement of endothelial function was achieved due to 4-week bisoprolol treatment which did not affect external respiration function.

Bisoprolol is an effective and safe drug in the treatment of stable angina combined with COPD. It can noticeably improve endothelial function.

Kuzyakowa O. Butova O. Tanner sind. Die Ergebnisse. Die Schlussfolgerung. Therapeuten umgesetzt. Lugova V. It can be applied in medicine and psychology.

Novelty, uniqueness and efficiency of the method is confirmed and protected by three Russian and one international patents. Lugova method.

Lugova Method on the basis of which Antistress Color Correction has been created. This method gives a choice to choose the color and select color correction combinations for complex color therapy taking in consideration the current psychoemotional state, individual peculiarity of a person and his stress stability.

Visual color impulse correction VCIC is the influence by electromagnetic impulses of the visible spectrum through a visual analyzer on the person.

VCIC is carried out by means of special glasses with radiator sources of optical radiation and the block of conducting of light impulses.

Optimum color and rhythmic components of apparatuses VCIC are the mortgage of affective influence. They allow to make procedures to patients in view of individual perception of color and rhythm.

Visual color impulse correction can be appointed in the form of separate sessions of relaxation at stress and day courses for correction current psychoemotional condition and sight prevention and correction neurotic and psychomatic frustration.

For definition of rhythms of the visual analyzer which often happens to be broken at psychoemotional and visual infringements, special glasses have been developed for research of rhythms of visual perception in visual color impulse correction.

These glasses can be used before appointing ACC and after carrying out the medical course. The given research gives a chance to find infringements of rhythms of visual perception and to estimate efficiency of ACC at their repeated definition.

Color correction combinations are relaxing, toning up and mixing, they are harmonious combinations of colors to the optical degree of their clarification or blackout for visual influence in polygraphic or electronic kind, and also interior and clothes.

For a situational and typological choice of color, selection of color correction combination and their further usage the Atlas of antistress color correction tables has been developed and published.

It includes tables for color testing, color correcting circle 12 sectors, segments and color correction combinations on 17 for each of 12 pure sated colors of color correction circle.

Antistress color correction is effective in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of 56 Programm Abstracts neurotic and psychomatic frustration, harmonization of the individual and interpersonal attitudes, increases stress stability and adaptable opportunities of organism.

Madigulov K. Toguzbaeva A. Belonog A. Lukashev G. Alibekova L. Sejduanova S. New engineering, technology, toolkits, equipment and medications are constantly introduced into dental practice.

On the one hand, it improves the quality of treatment and facilitates work of the staff, an the other hand dentists are confronted with new operating conditions, which are not thoroughly investigated in terms of occupational hygiene.

Now attention of hygienists should be switched to exposure to latest dental equipment, new filling materials, allergic effects of chemical substances used in dentistry, toxic concentrations in the air in dental surgery and diseases of dentists and dental technicians.

A peculiarity of working conditions at a dental prosthodontic laboratories is marked with a risk factor dealing with an air pollution due to various chemical substances in various modular conditions dust, vapors, gases some which are toxic: mercury, cadmium, lead, carbon oxide, an acid and alkali, SiO2, acrylates etc.

Sreda, Retrieved October 20, Subdivisions of Russia. Federal subjects. Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol 1.

Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions. Administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Flag Coat of arms. Anthem: [3]. Southern [1]. Volga [2]. Volgograd [5].

Oblast Duma [6]. Andrey Bocharov [7]. Russian [12]. Volgograd Volzhsky. City of oblast significance of Volgograd. Kamyshin Mikhaylovka.

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